2.30 Land Restoration

2.30 - Land Restoration

Vegetation Change Caused by Land Restoration

2_24_uppgraedslaLand improvement funds have been established to counteract negative impact of constructions associated with Kárahnjúkavirkjun power plant.  In this chapter you can learn about measures and progress of projects financed by the funds.

 

 

Information sign about the land restoration program

Progress

Land reclamation on behalf of the Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað has been ongoing for 14 years at Jökuldalsheiði heath, with overall good results. Vegetation has increased and a soil crust started to build. In areas suffering soil erosion, land reclamation procedures have managed to slow down the erosion process. Land reclamation at bars of Jökla river commenced in 2007. The vegetation reacts well to fertilizer and seeds. However, the water torrent of Jökla river has destroyed parts of the land reclamation area plus ice floes in winter time seem to uproot the vegetation in some areas. It is too early to conclude about land reclamation progress in areas under the responsibility of the Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur, but results from inspected areas are promising.

Since 2009 fertilizer has been spread on barren areas east of Hálslón reservoir in order to establish vegetation able to withstand and bind possible aeolian deposition from the reservoir bed. The results have been very good most years and the land reclamation area covers now about 750 ha.  In 2012 land reclamation operations were started with fertilizer and seeds in Hraun area, a disrupted former construction site.  The area is sparse, high above sea level and hard to vegetate.  Fertilizer was spread on most of the area in the summer of 2016 with good results.  In total the reclamation areas by Hálslón resevoir, Hraun area and adit tunnel 2 is now about 900 ha.

2.30_mynd1_2017               Figure 1. Land reclamation by Hálslón reservoir.

2.30_mynd2_2017Figure 2. Land reclamation operations in Hraunasvæði area.



Labels:  

    Afmörkun aðgerða 2016:      Boundary of operations in 2016                    
    Aðgerðir 2009 - 2016:         Operations in 2009 - 2016
    1 áburðardreifing:                Fertilized once
    x áburðardreifingar:             Fertilized x number of times
    Staðsetning mynda:              Location of pictures           
    Ár og vötn:                           Rivers and lakes
    Vegir:                                   Roads
    Hæðarlínur:                          Contour lines


Summary of land reclamation operations can be seen in the tables below and more information under the "Further reading" tab (only in Icelandic).

Table 1. Land reclamation by Hálslón reservoir

  Area (ha) Fertilizer (tons) Hayseed (kg)
 2009  255    
 2010  350  63.3  
 2011  418  70.2  
 2012  361  64.8  530
 2013  337  58.1  280
 2014  290  49.2  480
 2015  331  51.6  0
 2016  394  59.4  -



Table 2.  Land reclamation in Hraunasvæði area

  Area (ha) Fertilizer (tons) Hayseed(kg)
 2012  33  7.2 0.65
 2013  43  10.1 540
 2014  77  18 1,260
 2015  51  12.6 630
 2016  69  15.6 700



Table 3.  Land reclamation operations by Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað

  Area (ha) Fertilizer (tons) Hayseed (kg)
 2003  -  45.5  400
 2004  766  132.9  160
 2005  1,017  176.2  325
 2006  1,600  284  -
 2007  1,894  300  400
 2008  1,370  200.4  2,800
 2009  1,552  225  1,180
 2010  1,307  201  1,240
 2011  638  116.9  900
 2012  606  101.4  600
 2013  682  102  600
 2014  634  104.4  -
 2015  853  140  -
 2016  1,063  175  -


 

Table 4. Land reclamation operations by Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur

  Area (ha) Fertilizer (tons) Heyseed (kg)
 2007  35  -  -
 2008  126.4  24.9  130
 2009  330  105  400
 2010  337  -  -
 2011  264  57  297
 2012  400  94.5  44.5
 2013  200  42.1  20
 2014  347  52.4  95
 2015  237  34.8  15
 2016 310  55.2  -


Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað

Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað was established by Norður-Hérað (municipality at the time).  It was financed by contribution from Landsvirkjun with main objective to revegetate land at least equivalent to the vegetated land submerged to make Hálslón reservoir.  The fund shall also initiate land reclamation at the bars of Jökulsá á Dal river since decreased water volume increases risk of erosion on river bars.  The Icelandic act on land reclamation Act. 17/1965 states among other in chapter 3, article 17 that:  he, who causes land damage by construction or otherwise, is obliged to compensate for it.  By the advent of Kárahnjúkavirkjun power plant, about 32 km2 of vegetated land was submerged to make Hálslón reservoir.  Land reclamation has been ongoing since 2003 mostly by applying artificial fertilizer on sparsely vegetated and unvegetated land affected by the power plant, thereby stimulating natural vegetation.  The advisory board of the fund organizes land reclamation procedures, planning and assessments but contractors have worked on spreading fertilizer and seed as applicable.    Annual reports of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað from 2003 - 2016 can be found under the "Further reading" tab (only in Icelandic).

Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur

Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur was established by Fljótsdalshreppur municipality and funded by Landsvirkjun with the main objective of contributing to revegetation and land improvement to compensate for impairment of vegetation due to construction and operation of Kárahnjúkavirkjun power plant.  Annual reports of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur from 2007 - 2015 can be found under the "Further reading" tab (only in Icelandic).



Updated:  July 3 2017
Source:    Landsvirkjun ( 2016-2017)

Monitoring Protocol


Metrics: What is measured

Area (ha) of reclaimed land at Fljótsdalshérað and Fljótsdalshreppur (Project effect: direct).

Monitoring Protocol

The Soil Conservation of Iceland will measure,  monitor the areas and enter information into their database every five years. 

Targets

     Fljótsdalshérað: Reclaim 32 km2 of land
     Fljotsdalshreppur: Target needs to be developed in cooperation with municipality

Countermeasures

Land improvement funds of Norður-Hérað and Fljótsdalshreppur initiate revegetation by Jökla river and in Fljótsdalur valley.

Changes to indicator and metrics

It was decided in the fourth phase of the initiative to change the numbers of the sustainability indicators.  This indicator was originally number 26.3 and is referred as 26.3 in early documents of the project.


Originally the metrics were "Area(ha) of reclaimed land at Norður-Hérað and Fljótsdalur, recorded every five years".  In 2004, Fellahreppur, Norður-Hérað and Austur-Hérað municipalities merged to form Fljótsdalshérað municipality.  Resultantly the metric was changed to "Area (ha) of reclaimed land at Fljótsdalshérað and Fljótsdalshreppur recorded every five years".

Baseline

Revegetation will be attempted in areas that are currently characterized by gravel plain with small vegetated spots in an otherwise barren land.  Sides of the mountains also have little vegetation, and the little vegetation that is there is decreasing because of erosion.  The primary areas where revegetation will take place are shown in figure 1.


Figure 1.  Land reclamation areas in Jökuldalur valley

Rationale for Indicator Selection

The Kárahnjúkar power project will inevitably impair vegetated land due to the vegetated land submerged to make Hálslón and Kelduárlón reservoirs.   An agreement has been reached between Landsvirkjun and local authorities of Norður-Hérað (now Fljótsdalshérað municipality) and Fljótsdalshreppur municipality that Landsvirkjun will finance the revegetation and land improvement projects but the municipalities will be in charge of implementation.

A special committee with representatives from the municipality, the Soil Conservation Service, and Landsvirkjun will choose revegetation areas and monitor the work. The objectives of those mitigation measures are the following:

  1. Decrease soil erosion and strengthen vegetation in the impact area of the Kárahnjúkavirkjun project.
  2. Reconstruct ecosystems in eroded land.
  3. Create grazing areas for birds, reindeer, and sheep to make up for the areas that will be lost because of the power project.

The municipality Fljótsdalshreppur is solely responsible for implementation and sends a report to Landsvirkjun about allocation of funds.

Further reading

Reports on land reclamation published by Landsvirkjun and the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (only in Icelandic)

Lv_2016_117_forsidaGróðurstyrking við Hálslón og á Hraunum, Fljótsdalsheiði, Framkvæmdir og framvinda 2016.  Landsvirkjun report:  LV-2016-117




Frá árinu 2009 hefur áburði verið dreift á gróðursnauð svæði austan Hálslóns svo koma megi upp gróðri sem gæti staðist og bundið hugsanlegt áfok úr lónstæði. Heildarstærð uppgræðslusvæðis þar er nú um 700 ha. Árangur hefur verið mjög góður flest árin. Í sumar komu svæðin seint undan snjó og framan af sumri var kuldatíð. Hagstætt tíðarfar síðla sumars og um heustið, með úrkomu, bættu nokkuð úr, svo árangur er þokkalegur. Árið 2012 hófst uppgræðsla með áburðargjöf og sáningu á Hraunum, röskuðum, fyrrum framkvæmdasvæðum. Svæin eru almennt rýr, hátt yfir sjó og afar erfið í uppgræðslu. Sama gildir um önnur framkvæmdasvæði á Fljótsdalsheiði en hafist var handa við uppgræðslu í nágrenni við aðgöng 2 sem einnig er fyrrum framkvæmdasvæði virkjunar. Ekki var dreift áburði á svæði við aðgöng 2 í ár. Alls eru uppgræðslusvæðin við Hálslón, á Hraunum og við aðgöng 2 nú um 850 ha.Gróðurstyrking við Hálslón og á Hraunum, Fljótsdalsheiði, Framkvæmdir og árangur 2015.  Landsvirkjun report:  LV-2015-106




Frá árinu 2009 hefur áburði verið dreift á gróðursnauð svæði austan Hálslóns svo koma megi upp gróðri sem gæti staðist og bundið hugsanlegt áfok úr lónstæði. Heildarstærð uppgræðslusvæðis þar er nú um 700 ha. Árangur hefur verið mjög góður flest árin. Í sumar komu svæðin seint undan snjó en jafnari raki og hagstætt tíðarfar síðsumars bættu um svo árangur er vel viðunandi. Árið 2012 hófst uppgræðsla með áburðargjöf og sáningu á Hraunum, röskuðum, fyrrum framkvæmdasvæðum. Svæðin eru almennt rýr, hátt yfir sjó og erfið í uppgræðslu. Sama gildir um önnur framkvæmdasvæði á Fljótsdalsheiði en hafist var handa við uppgræðslu í nágrenni við aðgöng 2 sem einnig er fyrrum framkvæmdasvæði. Alls eru uppgræðslusvæðin við Hálslón, á Hraunum og við aðgöng 2 nú um 850 ha.Gróðurstyrking við Hálslón og á Hraunum, Fljótsdalsheiði.  Framkvæmdir og árangur 2014.  Landsvirkjun report:  LV-2014-098




Gróðurstyrking við Hálslón og á Hraunum - framkvæmdir og árangur 2013, áætlun 2014Gróðurstyrking við Hálslón og á Hraunum, Framkvæmdir og árangur 2013, áætlun 2014  Landsvirkjun report:  LV-2014-025

Click to download report.



Gróðurstyrking við Hálslón 2011Gróðurstyrking við Hálslón Framkvæmdir og árangur 2011
Soil conservation of Iceland report no:   Lr 2011/15

Click to download report.




Annual reports of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað from 2003-2014 (pdf)

Available only in Icelandic.

Mynd 1: Yfirlitskort: Aðgerðir Landbótasjoðs Norður - Héraðs

Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2016 
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2015
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2014
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2013
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2012
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2011
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2010
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2009
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2008
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2007
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2006
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2005
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2004
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Norður-Hérað 2003


Annual reports of Land improvement fund of  Fljótsdalshreppur from 2007-2015 (pdf)

Available only in Icelandic.

Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2015
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2013
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2012
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2011
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2010
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2009
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2008
Annual report of Land improvement fund of Fljótsdalshreppur 2007

Updated:  July 3 2017